- Risk Factors Diagnosis
What Is Cataract?
- The opacification or whitening of the normal transparent lens is called cataract.
- The Latin word ‘cataracta’ means ‘waterfall’. It is like trying to look through a sheet of falling water or through a frosted or fogged-up window.
- It develops slowly and eventually interferes with the vision.
- Cataract is common in older people.
Symptoms of Cataract
- Blurry vision
- Trouble seeing at night
- Seeing colors faded
- Increased sensitivity to glare
- Halos surrounding the light
- A need for frequent change in glass prescription
What Causes Cataract?
- 1) Ageing
- 2) Trauma/ Injury
- 3) Metabolic defect in the body like diabetes, Galactosaemia and Calcium disorders
- 4) Long term use of steroid
- 5) Electric shock, lightning, ionizing radiation, UV-radiation
- 6) Other causes can be glaucoma or long standing chronic inflammation in the eye.
Types of Cataract
There are different types of cataract. They’re classified based on where and how they develop in the eye.
- 1) Nuclear cataract form in the middle of the lens and cause the nucleus, or the center, to become yellow or brown.
- 2) Cortical cataract are wedge-shaped and form around the edges of the nucleus.
- 3) Posterior capsular cataract form faster than the other two types and affect the back of the lens.
- 4) Congenital cataract which are present at birth or form during a baby’s first year. They are less common than age-related cataract.
- 5) Secondary cataract are caused by disease or medications. Diseases like glaucoma and diabetes. Use of steroid and other medications can sometimes lead to cataract.
- 6) Traumatic cataract develop after an injury to the eye.
- 7) Radiation cataract can form after a person undergoes radiation treatment for cancer.
Risk Factors of Cataract
- Older age
- Heavy alcohol use
- High blood pressure
- Previous eye injuries
- Family history of cataracts
- Too much sun exposure
- Exposure to radiation from X-rays and cancer treatments
- Visual acuity: Checking vision of both eyes unaided and aided with glasses and pin-hole vision to know the improvement as well as to get the general idea about the macular function of the eyes.
- Intra ocular pressure: Tonometry to measure your eye pressure.
- Slit-lamp examination: To know the type of cataract along with its opacity, morphology and etiology or any associated ocular pathology.
- Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy: for complete retinal evaluation. Dense cataract will prevent retinal evaluation and such cases need B-scan for retinal evaluation.
- A-scan biometry: To calculate the AL and IOL power for implantation.
- Optical biometry: this is an advanced non contact method to measure IOL power. It is patient friendly and highly precise
Treatment of Cataract
Surgery is recommended when cataract prevents you from going about your daily activities. It’s also performed when cataracts interfere with the treatment of other eye problems. One surgical method, known as phacoemulsification, is the latest advancement in cataract surgery, it involves the use of ultrasound waves to break the lens apart and remove the pieces. Extracapsular surgery which is the older method, involves removing the cloudy part of the lens through a long incision in the cornea and removing the cataract in situ.
-Phacoemulsification is latest technology in Cataract surgery. It is a micro-incisional stitch less operation where cataract is emulsified by ultra sound energy, liquefied & sucked through the phacoemulsifier probe. A foldable intra- ocular lens is then implanted in the eye permanently.
Vision restoration is possible in a short period of time & is least traumatic with early rehabilitation & recuperation.
- It is Stitchless. Hence healing is very fast.
- It is done under Topical anaesthesia (by putting drops) So no need to patch the eye except in special circumstances
- Vision correction for far & near is possible
- Patient can get back to work in the shortest possible time
- After removing the natural cataractous lens from the eye an artificial IOL Intraocular Lens is implanted in the eye in place of the cataract. Surgery to remove a cataract is generally very safe and has a high success rate.
An intraocular lens (IOL) implant is a synthetic, artificial lens placed inside the eye that replaces the natural lens which is surgically removed usually as a part of cataract surgery.
- Monofocal intraocular lens can be used to give clear point focus either at a distance or close up, but one can choose only one focal point.
- Multifocal IOLs are popular as they allow correction of vision for both far & near distance.
- Trifocal IOLs provides excellent vision not only for near and far, but also for intermediate distances, especially for people who have routine usage of computers.
- Toric IOL is a monofocal or a multifocal IOL with astigmatism correction built into the lens.
(Astigmatism is a eye condition that distorts or blurs the ability to see both near and distant objects. With astigmatism the cornea (the clear front window of the eye) is not round and smooth like a basketball, but instead is curved. People with significant degrees of astigmatism are usually most satisfied with toric IOLs)
Prevention of Cataract
To reduce your risk of developing cataract:
- Protect your eyes from UV rays by wearing sunglasses outside
- Regular eye examination
- Stop smoking
- Eat fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidants
& maintain a healthy weight
- Keep diabetes and other medical conditions in check
Why chose us?
At AGRAWAL EYE HOSPITAL we are equipped with the worlds finest and the fastest phacoemulsification cataract machine the CONSTELLATION phacoemulsifier by ALCON. We can help you guide further about cataract specially related to your eye and which IOL is best suited for your needs and requirments. Please feel free to contact us for any further querries or doubts. We are always glad to help you.